Why every Java field should have been final by default.


Note to clarify the post: by default I mean having to write something like ‘var’ to have the current behavior (fields can be reassigned), so that if you write nothing the field is automatically final. You still have the choice about being able to reassign or not by using some kind of keyword like ‘var’. I hope it is clearer now !

We all like freedom, but what is freedom when we talk about code ?

You have a lot of freedom with mutable fields, too much, why not let the compiler help you by telling it that your data is immutable ? Is it because you want more possibilities to write code that does not do what you want ?

You sure do not want to, and please do not tell me the final keywords make your code hard to read, it does the exact opposite: it tells the compiler and the reader that your data will never change and this is important information. Most of the time it forces you to write cleaner code that uses less ‘smart tricks’.

(Note: this post is NOT about the ‘other’ final keyword, the one used on classes and methods. It is also not about immutability in general, a much broader topic, but the given links will provide some lecture.)

Examples that illustrate why every Java field should have been final by default:

Example 1: Bad initialization in constructors.

public class UnidentifiedPerson {

 private String _firstName, _lastName;

 public UnidentifiedPerson(String firstName, String lastName) {
   _firstName = firstName;
   // Notice how the lastName is never set and the compiler does not complain !!!

There is rarely a need for such code, most of the time you will find that making the fields final will force you to write better constructors.
This is especially true when you have many fields to initialize and when you refactor code.

Example 2: Changing data that is immutable by nature.

public class Person {

 private String _firstName, _lastName;

 public Person(String firstName, String lastName) {
   _firstName = firstName;
   _lastName = lastName;

 public Person changeIdentity(String firstName, String lastName) {
   // It is so easy to change my name.
   _firstName = firstName;
   _lastName = lastName;
   return this;

 public String toString() {
   return _firstName + " " + _lastName;

 public static void main(String[] args) {
   System.out.println(new Person("Christophe", "Roussy").changeIdentity("Bill", "Gates"));

If you make the fields final the compiler will tell you something interesting:

public PersonFinal changeIdentity(String firstName, String lastName) {
 // The final field PersonFinal._firstName cannot be assigned.
 _firstName = firstName;
 // The final field PersonFinal._lastName cannot be assigned.
 _lastName = lastName;
 return this;

Example 3: Hiding potentially useless code.

public class UselessAssignment {
 public static void main(String[] args) {
 int a, b;
 a = 1;
 b = a;
 a = b;
 // This kind of code is only possible with mutable fields, it will
 // eventually turn up because it can.

 final int fa, fb;
 fa = 1;
 fb = fa;
 fa = fb;
 // The final local variable fa may already have been assigned.

When prefixing fields with the final keyword, some undesired code will emerge, it may even explain and solve some bugs.

When not to use final ?

There a only few cases where you want to use mutable fields, such as computing sums:

private static int computeSum(final List<Integer> values) {
   // Here it makes sense not to use final as you do WANT to change the value
   // of sum. Also note how I now use int for sum to avoid autoboxing.
   int sum = 0;
   for (final int value : values) {
     sum += value;
   return sum;

A good way to figure out if you want to remove the final keyword is to ask yourself: “Do I really want this variable to be mutable ?”.

It can sometimes be tricky not to use mutable fields when you are used to them, but on the long term you will discover that it is well worth the effort to help the compiler so it can help you and others. Also note that making a list final does not make the list fully immutable, you will not be able to reassign the list itself, but you will be able to add, remove and modify the contained elements. I have also read that the value of final fields can be changed using reflection (http://www.javaspecialists.eu/archive/Issue096.html), but this is not a concern unless you want to experiment.


It is illogical that the Java language did not do the opposite: every field immutable by default and mutable only when prefixed with some language keyword. Perhaps it comes from the C/C++ mutable flavour Java inherited.


  1. http://renaud.waldura.com/doc/java/final-keyword.shtml, The Final Word On the final Keyword
  2. http://jeremymanson.blogspot.com/2008/04/immutability-in-java.html, Immutability in Java.
  3. http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/library/j-jtp1029.html, Is that your final answer?
  4. http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/library/j-jtp02183.html, To mutate or not to mutate?